Surrounded by 3,0005,000 meter peaks, Svanetia is the highest inhabited area in Europe. Four of the 10 highest peaks of the Caucasus are located in the region. The highest mountain in Georgia, Mount Shkhara at 5,201 meters (17,059 feet), is located in the province. Other prominent peaks include Tetnuldi (4,974m./16,319ft.), Shota Rustaveli (4,960m./16,273ft.), Mt. Ushba (4,710m./15,453ft.), and Ailama (4,525m./14,842ft.).
Situated on the southern slopes of the central Greater Caucasus, Svanetia extends over the upper valleys of the Rioni, Enguri and Tskhenistskali. Geographically and historically, the province has been divided into two parts—Upper Svanetia (Zemo Svaneti; the present day Mestia Raioni) and Lower Svanetia (Kvemo Svaneti; the present day Lentekhi Raioni)—centering on the valleys of the upper reaches of the two rivers Enguri and Cxenis-cqali, respectively. They are distributed between the present-day regions of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti respectively. Historical Svanetia also included the Kodori Gorge in the adjoining rebel province of Abkhazia, and part of the adjacent river valleys of Kuban and Baksan of Russia.
The landscape of Svanetia is dominated by mountains that are separated by deep gorges. Most of the region which lies below 1,800 meters (5,904ft.) above sea level is covered by mixed and coniferous forests. The forest zone is made up of tree species such as spruce, fir, beech, oak, and hornbeam. Other species that are less common but may still be found in some areas include chestnut, birch, maple, pine and box. The zone which extends from 1,800 meters to roughly about 3,000 meters (5,9049,840ft.) above sea level consists of alpine meadows and grasslands. Eternal snows and glaciers take over in areas that are over 3,000 meters above sea level. The region is notable for its glaciers and picturesque summits. Svanetia's signature peak is probably Mt. Ushba which towers over the Inguri Gorge and can be seen from many parts of the region...
The climate of Svanetia is humid and is influenced by the air masses coming in from the Black Sea throughout the year. Average temperatures and precipitation vary considerably with elevation. Annual precipitation ranges between 1000 and 3200mm (39 and 126 inches). The highest amount of precipitation falls on the Greater Caucasus Mountains. The region is characterized by very heavy snowfall in the winter and avalanches are a frequent occurrence. Snow cover may reach 5 meters (16.4 feet) in some areas. In general, the lowest regions of Svanetia (8001200 meters/26243936 feet above sea level) are characterized by long, warm summers and relatively cold and snowy winters. Middle altitudes (1200-1800 meters above sea level) experience relatively warm summers and cold winters. Areas above 2000 meters above sea level lie within a zone that experiences short, cool summers (less than 3 months) and long and cold winters. Large parts of Svanetia lie above 3000 meters (9840 feet) above sea level, a zone which does not have a real summer. Due to Svanetia's close proximity to the Black Sea, the region is spared from the extremely cold winter temperatures that are characteristic of high mountains.
Svanetia boasts the most complex form polyphonic singing.
Svanetia is known for their architectural treasures and picturesque landscapes.
The Svan language (ლუშნუ ნინ/შკა̈ნ, lušnu nin/šḳän; Georgian: სვანური ენა, svanuri ena) is a language spoken by Svans in Svaneti, in the Caucasus region, Northwest of Georgia.